How special are early birds? Foreign language teaching and learning

Kevin McManus   Monika S. Schmid  


This volume honours the academic achievements and scholarship of Professor Florence Myles as a world-leading scholar in the fields of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and French Linguistics, in particular for her work in corpus-based SLA and language policy in primary school education. In addition to reviews of the field (e.g., primary languages policy in the UK), the volume presents new research studies reflective of key theoretical and methodological issues in current SLA research, including theory-building, corpus-based investigations, studies of language development, as well as informing teacher professional development through research. Taken together, this edited book provides a wide-ranging and balanced account of Myles’s work and speaks to her influence on SLA research and primary languages policy. We invite readers to learn more about the fascinating research presented here as inspired by Florence’s dedication to field. 


  • Preface
    Li Wei
  • Introduction and overview of the volume
    Kevin McManus, Monika S. Schmid
  • The role of research in primary languages policy in the UK
    The journey from policy to practice
    Bernardette Holmes, Angela Tellier
  • Learning vocabulary in the primary languages classroom
    What corpus analysis can tell us
    Rosamond Mitchell, Sarah Rule
  • Research in primary languages
    Contribution to teacher professional development
    Alison Porter, Suzanne Graham
  • Metalinguistic awareness in early foreign language learning
    Rowena Kasprowicz, Karen Roehr-Brackin, Gee Macrory
  • CLIL to make primary pupils click for languages
    Lessons from Hackney
    Emmanuelle Labeau, Raquel Tola Rego
  • Instructional practices in English-Chinese and English-Spanish kindergarten dual language immersion classrooms
    Kevin McManus, Brody Bluemel
  • The impact of language learning on wider academic outcomes
    Victoria Murphy, Hamish Chalmers
  • Early use of null and overt subjects in L2 Spanish
    Evidence from two oral tasks
    Laura Domínguez , María J. Arche
  • Post scriptum
    Roger Hawkins



Kevin McManus, Penn State University

Kevin McManus is the Gilbert R. Watz Early Career Professor in Language and Linguistics and an Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics at Penn State University, USA. His research uses experimental, corpus, and replication designs to investigate how we learn, process, and use second languages, particularly the development of grammatical knowledge and how cognitive and environmental factors shape that knowledge. His work in these areas has been published in the field's leading journals, including Applied LinguisticsBilingualism: Language and Cognition, and Studies in Second Language Acquisition. His most recent books include Crosslinguistic influence and second language learning (Routledge, 2021) and Doing replication research in Applied Linguistics (Routledge, 2019). For more information, see 

Monika S. Schmid, University of York

Monika S. Schmid obtained her PhD in English Linguistics in 2000 from the Heinrich-Heine Universität Düsseldorf with a thesis on First Language Attrition, Use and Maintenance: the case of German Jews in Anglophone Countries. She has since held positions at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Rijksuniversiteit Groningen and the University of Essex. Since January 2022 she is Professor of Linguistics and Head of Department of Language and Linguistic Science at the University of York.
Her work has focused on various aspects of first language attrition. She has published two monographs and edited several collected volumes and special issues of journals on this topic, most recently the Oxford Handbook of Language Attrition (2019). Her website collects information on language attrition and how to study it for non-specialists as well as the research community.

Book cover


August 23, 2022
LaTeX source on GitHub
Cite as
McManus, Kevin & Schmid, Monika S. (eds.). 2022. How special are early birds?: Foreign language teaching and learning. (EuroSLA Studies 6). Berlin: Language Science Press. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6811427


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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ISBN-13 (15)




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ISBN-13 (15)


Physical Dimensions

180mm x 245mm